DC sputtering utilizes a DC gaseous discharge. Ions strike the target (the cathode of the discharge), which is the deposition source. The substrate and the vacuum chamber walls may be the anode. the power supply is simply a high-voltage DC source.
RF-sputtering is a suitable technique to fabricate optical planar waveguides and photonic microcavities operating in the visible and NIR regions. Sputtering techniques are widely used in industrial process because high quality films can be obtained at low temperature substrates. We have also demonstrated as the rf sputtering is a suitable technique for fabrication of dielectric microcavities and it is a cheap and versatile technique to deposit alternating layers of different materials with controlled refractive index and thickness. With these advantages, as well as the possibility to incorporating QCM, RF-sputtering process is a extremely appropriate candidate to fabricate high quality and homogeneous 1-D photonic crystals and planar waveguides.
The experimental set up consists of probe arrangement, sample , oven 0-200°C, constant current generator , oven power supply and digital panel meter(measuring voltage and current). Four probe apparatus is one of the standard and most widely used apparatus for the measurement of resistivity of semiconductors.This method is employed when the sample is in the form of a thin wafer, such as a thin semiconductor material deposited on a substrate. The sample is millimeter in size and having a thickness w. It consists of four probe arranged linearly in a straight line at equal distance S from each other. A constant current is passed through the two probes and the potential drop V across the middle two probes is measured. An oven is provided with a heater to heat the sample so that behavior of the sample is studied with increase in temperature.
A muffle furnace capable of annealing coated Glass substrates with typical dimension 45 cm× 30 cm,maximum 60 cm × 60 cm. Furnace is configured to heat treat 4 numbers of coated glass substrates at a time by suitably holding them in desired locations. The design should ensure homogeneous heating of all the glasses placed vertically using long Tungsten Halogen Lamps placed in a configuration so as to heat all the coated glass plates uniformly at the set temperature .This has following specification.
Contact angle measurement system comprising of high speed automated goniometer/tensiometer with automated tilt, dispensing, environmental control and overhead imaging with following specification