• Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) unit

    PECVD is used to deposit thin films from a gas state (vapor) to a solid state on a substrate. Chemical reactions are involved in the process, which occur after creation of plasma of the reacting gases. The plasma is generally created by radio frequency (RF) (alternating current (AC)) frequency or direct current (DC) discharge between two electrodes, the space between which is filled with the reacting gases.
  • Thermal Oxidation-Diffusion Furnace

    Thermal oxidation is accomplished using an oxidation furnace (or diffusion furnace, since oxidation is basically a diffusion process involving oxidant species), which provides the heat needed to elevate the oxidizing ambient temperature.
  • Screen Printer and Belt Furnace System

    It is used to print designs (both simple and complicated) on the fabrics of different kinds
  • Belt Furnace

    A conveyor belt furnace is a furnace uses a conveyor or belt to carry process parts or material through the primary heating chamber for rapid thermal processing. It is designed for fast drying and curing of products and is nowadays widely used in the firing process of thick filmand metallization process of solar cell manufacturing. Other names for conveyor belt furnace include metallization furnace, belt furnace, atmosphere furnace, infrared furnace and fast fire furnace.
  • Laser Scribing Unit (Infra Red and Green Laser)

    Modern ceramic processing uses two types of lasers: CO2 lasers that emit in the far- infrared (FIR) region of the spectrum, and diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS)lasers that are available at output wavelengths ranging from the ultraviolet (UV) through the visible to the near-infrared (NIR)
  • DC and RF Sputtering Units

    DC sputtering utilizes a DC gaseous discharge. Ions strike the target (the cathode of the discharge), which is the deposition source. The substrate and the vacuum chamber walls may be the anode. the power supply is simply a high-voltage DC source.

    RF-sputtering is a suitable technique to fabricate optical planar waveguides and photonic microcavities operating in the visible and NIR regions. Sputtering techniques are widely used in industrial process because high quality films can be obtained at low temperature substrates. We have also demonstrated as the rf sputtering is a suitable technique for fabrication of dielectric microcavities and it is a cheap and versatile technique to deposit alternating layers of different materials with controlled refractive index and thickness. With these advantages, as well as the possibility to incorporating QCM, RF-sputtering process is a extremely appropriate candidate to fabricate high quality and homogeneous 1-D photonic crystals and planar waveguides.

  • Reactive Ion etching unit

    Reactive-ion etching (RIE) is an etching technology used in microfabrication. RIE is a type of dry etching which has different characteristics than wet etching. RIE uses chemically reactive plasma to remove material deposited on wafers. The plasma is generated under low pressure(vacuum) by an electromagnetic field. High-energy ions from the plasma attack the wafer surface and react with it.
  • Thermal and E-beam evaporation unit

    Electron-beam physical vapor deposition, or EBPVD, is a form of physical vapor deposition in which a target anode is bombarded with an electron beam given off by a charged tungsten filament under high vacuum. The electron beam causes atoms from the target to transform into the gaseous phase. These atoms then precipitate into solid form, coating everything in the vacuum chamber (within line of sight) with a thin layer of the anode material.
  • Texturization unit

    The wet texturization unit is used for surface texturization of silicon wafers. The silicon wafers are chemically treated without any human contact to create pyramid-shaped surface textures as a measure of better light management.
  • Ball Mill

    A planetary ball mill is mechanical milling equipment, which is used to prepare nanomaterials in a top-down approach by fragmentation of larger particles to smaller particles. There are two vials in this ball mill of two different materials; viz Zirconium Oxide and Tungsten carbide and ball of different diameters of two materials (Zirconium Oxide and Tungsten carbide) are available. Maximum speed of rotation 1100 rpm.
  • Surface Profilometer

    A profilometer is a device used to measure the roughness of a surface. - Gives difference between the high and low point of a surface in nanometres
  • Life time measurement unit

    Product lifetime represent an important area of enquiry with regards to product design, the circular economy[2] and sustainable development.[3] This is because products, with the materials involved in their design, production, distribution, use and disposal (across their life cycle), embody carbon due to the energy involved in these processes.[4] Therefore, if product lifetimes can be extended, the use of energy, embodied in carbon, can be reduced and progress can be made towards reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

    FESEM is used to visualize very small topographic details on the surface or entire or fractioned objects.
  • Atomic force microscope Unit

    Atomic Force Microscopy uses a cantilever with a sharp probe that scans the surface of the specimen. When the tip of the probe travels near to a surface, the forces between the tip and sample deflect the cantilever according to Hooke's law.
  • XRD Analysis unit

    The X-Ray diffractometer. unit provides the measure of crystallinity of a material. The diffraction pattern of X-ray (wavelength 0.1-100 Å), when interacted with the material is analyzed with the help of standard JCPDS data file to find out the structure of the material lattice and planes.
  • FTIR

    Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy is a material characterization instrument. It detects the infrared spectrum of absorption of the sample, which then can be analyzed to get the information about the materials present in the given sample. This unit has a radiation wavelength range of 400nm to 4000nm.
  • Optical Microscope

    It is a such kind of microscope that commonly uses a visible light & a system of lensesto magnify images of small objects.
  • UV –VIS spectrometer

    It is used for the quantitative determination of different substances. ε is a proportionality constant called the molar absorptivity or extinction coefficient. Common analytes are transition metal ions, conjugated organic compounds, and biological molecules.
  • PL Spectroscopy

    Photoluminescence spectroscopy gives an insight of electronic structure and properties of a material. This unit has an excitation capability of wavelength range 300~600nm and an emission detection range of 300~900nm. It also has a 405nm LASER with controllable intensity. Opto-electronic bandgap, trap assisted radiative recombination and trap states, etc data can be deduced from this spectroscopy.
  • Optical Spectrometer

    The Bentham PVE300 photovoltaic characterization system is used for optical and opto-electric response of a device. The reflectance and transmittance spectrum of a sample within visible range can be detected. EQE and IQE can also be measured.
  • Cryostat unit

    An ultrafine "deli-slicer", called a microtome, placed in a freezer.
  • Surface Conformal Imprint Lithography (SCIL) unit

    The surface conformal imprint lithography (SCIL) system allows for sub-100nm imprinting of features. Using a hard master, a soft replica stamp is made using PDMS and flexible glass sheet. The result is a flexible stamp that readily conforms to existing substrate topography when imprinting atop a UV curable nano-imprint resist.
  • C-V Measurements unit

    C-V measurement unit measures the capacitance with respect to voltage across a semiconductor device junction. This unit has a voltage variation range of -30V to +30V. The Capacitance can be measured for a variable frequency rage of 1kHz to 10MHz. Capacitance -Voltage and Capacitance- frequency response of a semiconductor device can be characterized using this instrument.
  • Solar Simulator with IV Characteristics

    This system includes the light source, the measurement electronics, computer, and software needed to measure solar cell I-V curves. Its solar simulator illuminates the test device while the electronic load sweeps the cell voltage from a reverse-bias condition, through the power quadrant, and beyond Voc. The system's computer gathers data, calculates solar cell parameters, generates printable test reports, and saves test data in text files.
  • Four Point Probe

    The experimental set up consists of probe arrangement, sample , oven 0-200°C, constant current generator , oven power supply and digital panel meter(measuring voltage and current). Four probe apparatus is one of the standard and most widely used apparatus for the measurement of resistivity of semiconductors.

    This method is employed when the sample is in the form of a thin wafer, such as a thin semiconductor material deposited on a substrate. The sample is millimeter in size and having a thickness w. It consists of four probe arranged linearly in a straight line at equal distance S from each other. A constant current is passed through the two probes and the potential drop V across the middle two probes is measured. An oven is provided with a heater to heat the sample so that behavior of the sample is studied with increase in temperature.
  • Single Side Etcher (Under Procurement Process)

    This is a fully automated wet chemical single side etching in an inline type process system. Single side removals of silicon oxide (SiO2), doped glasses (PSG/BSG) are performed using this unit. The system uses HF for single side processing but additional chemistry as optional like H2SO4 or BHF can also be used. Integrated rinsing and drying facilities are there. This unit is compatible with M0, M1, M2 and M4 wafer size. This is used in the fabrication of high efficiency cell concepts like PERC solar cell.
  • IV Curve tracer for solar cell (Under Procurement Process)

    The device’s LED technology enables near-perfect solar cell efficiency measurement. Until now, xenon lamps were the standard light source for measuring solar cell performance. But they frequently deviated from standards by as much as 25%, however, this system exhibits a maximum error of only 2%. The 18-color LED-based light source is what makes this exceptional accuracy possible.
  • Green laser (Under Procurement Process)

    This 532 nm green laser unit is able to provide a broad range services like surface structuring, ablation, cleaning, and scribing. These include processes in microelectronics fabrication, medical device manufacturing and machine tool production to name just a few. This unit is especially dedicated for ablating the rear Al2O3 layer for contact formation in PERC solar cell.
  • ECV Profiler (Under Procurement Process)

    The Wafer Profiler is a handy tool to measure doping profiles in semiconductor layers by Electrochemical Capacitance Voltage Profiling (ECV-Profiling, CV-Profiling) in semiconductor research or production.
  • Ellipsometer (Under Procurement Process)

    Ellipsometry is an optical technique for investigating the dielectric properties (complex refractive index or dielectric function) of thin films. Ellipsometry measures the change of polarization upon reflection or transmission and compares it to a model.
  • Atomic Layer Deposition Unit (Under Procurement Process)

    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) process allows to deposit thin film in atomic layer thickness will high conformality even on high aspect ratio surfaces and high compactness (pin hole free). The system involves alternating pulses of gaseous/liquid precursors that interact with a substrate. First, a precursor is pumped into a vacuum chamber to allow it to completely react with the substrate surface so that lays down exactly one monolayer. It’s a low temperature process and wide range of functional materials (Oxides, Nitrides, Carbides, Flourides etc.) can be deposited by this process. ALD is used to develop PERC and TOPCon Solar cells and functional materials can also be deposited on various substrates for suitable electronic device fabrications.
  • N2 Generator

    This N2 generator can generate high purity N2 gas which is used for the gas (N2) pruging application for many equipments. It provides huge savings against N2 cylinder procurement. The generator makes it easy to supply nitrogen gas. The use of an oil-free scroll compressor achieves a low noise level.
  • SCIL Master Stamp (Under Procurement Process)

    Substrate Conformal Imprint lithography (SCIL) is a Nano Imprint Lithography (NIL) technique that combines the advantages of a soft working composite stamp for large area patterning of nano structures. The system can produce features as small as 30nm on a 200mm diameter wafer. This technique uses a soft stamp made from a liquid silicone rubber, which is poured over a master pattern and thermally cured at 50°C to form a rubber, poly-di-methyl siloxane (PDMS) stamp, which is peeled from the master. SCIL master stamps is used to develop defined nano-patterns for the applcations of Thin silicon solar cells for better light management.
  • Environmental Chamber

    Environmental Walk-in Chamber is designed to test Photovoltaic (PV) Modules as per IEC test standards in order to prove their performance, reliability, durability and service life. There are three test methods that are performed; Thermal Cycle Test, Humidity Freeze Test and Damp Heat Test.
  • Solar Simulator for PV module (Under Procurement Process)

    Spire 5100 Sun simulator is used to test photovoltaic (PV) modules, indoor under controlled and repeatable conditions. These use an electrically powered xenon lamp to simulate sunlight over a focal plane providing uniformity, collimation and light spectrum matching day light. The system has IEC 60904-9 ed. 3 class A+A+A+ classification for spectrum, spatial uniformity, and temporal stability and allows for better control of “measurement uncertainty” with a measurement repeatability of below 0.15%.
  • Thermal Imaging system

    The FLIR E85 Thermal Imaging System is packed with the high-performance features needed for fast, accurate detection of hot spots and hidden deficiencies in Photovoltaic (PV) modules. The 384 x 288 true native resolution offers more than 110,000 points of temperature measurement, while the laser distance meter provides data for measuring square area (m² or ft²) on-screen.
  • Portable IV curve tracer for PV Module

    The Solmetric PV Analyzer I-V curve tracer are specialist types of test equipment that sweep an electrical load connected to the Photovoltaic (PV) module or string and measure both the current and voltage at multiple points during the sweep. The pairs of current and voltage values are then used to plot an I-V curve directly or to calculate and plot a P-V curve. They are widely used in Commissioning, Auditing, O&M, and Troubleshooting of PV systems.
  • Vaccum Laminator (Under Procurement Process)

    The vaccum laminator is used for encapsulation of the Photovoltaic (PV) module by applying the right pressure and temperature to laminate the various components. It ensures the longevity of the PV cells of a module as they need to be able to withstand outdoor exposure in all types of climate for periods of 25 years and more
  • UV Chamber (Under Procurement Process)

    The UV chamber provides ultraviolet (UV) light exposure for accelerated life testing of photovoltaic (PV) modules. The system can be used for UV pre-conditioning required by IEC 61215 and 61646 for PV module testing.
  • EL Tester (Under Procurement Process)

    Electroluminescence (EL) Tester is used to test the Photovoltaic (PV) modules for PV cell inherent defects, such as micro cracks, debris, bad soldering, and for instance to detect an inactive string inside a PV module.
  • Large area Dip Coater with UV & IR Lamps for surface treatment

    A sol-gel dip coating system compatible for coating substrate with typical size around having following specifications:
    • Speed range : 0.1 mm - 600 mm /min.
    • Maximum substrate size 450 mm x 600 mm x 5 mm.
    • Teflon coated stainless Steel tank for solution in three different capacities.
    • Gas purging facility with flow meter (3-5 L/min.)
    • Dipping cycle max 999, Delay time: max 999 min. speed control, tank time: Max=999 sec.
    • Built in dust free enclosure.
    • Digital Temperature control and indication of substrate from 50 °C to 160 °C , programmable, with quartz-halogen lamp, sensor RTD.
  • Large area Muffle Furnace

    A muffle furnace capable of annealing coated Glass substrates with typical dimension 45 cm× 30 cm,maximum 60 cm × 60 cm. Furnace is configured to heat treat 4 numbers of coated glass substrates at a time by suitably holding them in desired locations. The design should ensure homogeneous heating of all the glasses placed vertically using long Tungsten Halogen Lamps placed in a configuration so as to heat all the coated glass plates uniformly at the set temperature .This has following specification.

    • Temperature Range: room temperature to 550 °C
    • Heating capacity: Maximum temperature should be attained within about 40 minutes.
    • Electronically programmed and controlled heating ± 1°C, with ramping rate 1 – 10°C. It should stay at the highest temperature or any value with in the range for the set time.
    • The substrates will be put in furnace in vertical position with edge facing the furnace door (front loading furnace).
    • Have a gas inlet and outlet provision at top and bottom of the furnace
  • Contact angle measurement facility with software

    Contact angle measurement system comprising of high speed automated goniometer/tensiometer with automated tilt, dispensing, environmental control and overhead imaging with following specification

    • Substrate stage dimension : 100 × 100 mm
    • Sample size up to 300 mm in length.
    • Camera speed ≥ 2000 fps
    • Precision in vertical and horizontal adjustment of sample stage. Also, adjustment of horizontal position of the syringe.
    • Contact angle range: 0 to 180°
    • Included Components: Automated dispensing system, automated tilting base, surface tension measurement module, surface energy measurement module, tilting angle measurement module and dynamic contact angle measurement module, calibration pack.